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Ubuntu Linux 20.04 LTSにパッケージインストールしたnginxを、HTTPS化(SSL/TLS化)する

これは、なにをしたくて書いたもの?

nginxをHTTPS化(SSL/TLS化)する設定を書いたことがないな?と思いまして。

せっかくなので、軽く試しておくことにしました。

なお、HTTPS化(SSL/TLS化)するにあたり、SSL/TLS証明書は自己署名証明書をOpenSSLで作成して使うことにします。

環境

今回の環境は、こちら。

$ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS
Release:    20.04
Codename:   focal


$ uname -srvmpio
Linux 5.4.0-81-generic #91-Ubuntu SMP Thu Jul 15 19:09:17 UTC 2021 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Ubuntu Linux 20.04 LTSです。

nginxをインストールする

nginxをインストールします。インストールは、nginx公式リポジトリのものを使います。

nginx: Linux packages / Ubuntu

stableをインストール。

$ sudo apt install curl gnupg2 ca-certificates lsb-release ubuntu-keyring
$ curl https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | gpg --dearmor \
    | sudo tee /usr/share/keyrings/nginx-archive-keyring.gpg >/dev/null
$ gpg --dry-run --quiet --import --import-options import-show /usr/share/keyrings/nginx-archive-keyring.gpg
$ echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/nginx-archive-keyring.gpg] \
   http://nginx.org/packages/ubuntu `lsb_release -cs` nginx" \
    | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nginx.list
$ echo -e "Package: *\nPin: origin nginx.org\nPin: release o=nginx\nPin-Priority: 900\n" \
    | sudo tee /etc/apt/preferences.d/99nginx
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

今回のバージョンは1.20.1です。

$ nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.20.1
built by gcc 9.3.0 (Ubuntu 9.3.0-10ubuntu2) 
built with OpenSSL 1.1.1f  31 Mar 2020
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --modules-path=/usr/lib/nginx/modules --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-compat --with-file-aio --with-threads --with-http_addition_module --with-http_auth_request_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_slice_module --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_v2_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-stream --with-stream_realip_module --with-stream_ssl_module --with-stream_ssl_preread_module --with-cc-opt='-g -O2 -fdebug-prefix-map=/data/builder/debuild/nginx-1.20.1/debian/debuild-base/nginx-1.20.1=. -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Werror=format-security -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fPIC' --with-ld-opt='-Wl,-Bsymbolic-functions -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now -Wl,--as-needed -pie'

設定ファイルは、これだけ。

$ find /etc/nginx -type f
/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
/etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf
/etc/nginx/fastcgi_params
/etc/nginx/scgi_params
/etc/nginx/uwsgi_params
/etc/nginx/mime.types

デフォルトの設定ファイルを見ておきましょう。

/etc/nginx/nginx.conf

user  nginx;
worker_processes  auto;

error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log notice;
pid        /var/run/nginx.pid;


events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}


http {
    include       /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    keepalive_timeout  65;

    #gzip  on;

    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
}

80ポートをリッスンするHTTPサーバーの設定ファイルはこちら。

/etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf

server {
    listen       80;
    server_name  localhost;

    #access_log  /var/log/nginx/host.access.log  main;

    location / {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
        index  index.html index.htm;
    }

    #error_page  404              /404.html;

    # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
    #
    error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
    }

    # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
    #
    #location ~ \.php$ {
    #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
    #}

    # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
    #
    #location ~ \.php$ {
    #    root           html;
    #    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
    #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
    #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
    #    include        fastcgi_params;
    #}

    # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
    # concurs with nginx's one
    #
    #location ~ /\.ht {
    #    deny  all;
    #}
}

/etc/nginx/conf.dディレクトリ配下のファイルが読み込まれるようになっているので、こちらにHTTPSに関する
設定ファイルを追加するように進めていくことにします。

SSL/TLS証明書を作成する

まずは、SSL/TLS証明書を作成します。自己署名証明書ですが。

秘密鍵を作成。

$ sudo openssl genrsa -aes-128-cbc -out /etc/nginx/server.key 2048

パスフレーズの解除。

$ sudo openssl rsa -in /etc/nginx/server.key -out /etc/nginx/server.key

CSRの作成。

$ sudo openssl req -new -key /etc/nginx/server.key -out /etc/nginx/server.csr

Common Nameをwww.example.comに指定しました。それ以外は、今回は未指定。

You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:www.example.com
Email Address []:

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

署名。

$ sudo openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in /etc/nginx/server.csr -signkey /etc/nginx/server.key -out /etc/nginx/server.crt

nginxをHTTPS化(SSL/TLS化)する

作成した秘密鍵、証明書を使って、nginxの設定ファイルを作成します。

/etc/nginx/conf.d/ssl.conf

server {
    listen       443 ssl;
    server_name  www.example.com;

    ssl_certificate           server.crt;
    ssl_certificate_key       server.key;
    ssl_protocols             TLSv1.3;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    ssl_ciphers               HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
    
    location / {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
        index  index.html index.htm;
    }
}

listenでsslを付けたり、ssl_*な設定を入れたりしています。

内容的には、ほぼこちらの最低限の設定を移したものですね。

Configuring HTTPS servers

TLSは1.3のみとしたのと、ssl_prefer_server_ciphersをonにしたところは変えていますが。

その他、nginxのSSL/TLSの設定はこちらも参照しましょう。

Module ngx_http_ssl_module

設定したら、nginxを再起動。

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx

これで、最低限の設定ですがnginxがHTTPS化されました。

$ curl -k -v https://localhost
*   Trying 127.0.0.1:443...
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to localhost (127.0.0.1) port 443 (#0)
* ALPN, offering h2
* ALPN, offering http/1.1
* successfully set certificate verify locations:
*   CAfile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
  CApath: /etc/ssl/certs
* TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS handshake, Client hello (1):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Server hello (2):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Encrypted Extensions (8):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Certificate (11):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, CERT verify (15):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
* TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS change cipher, Change cipher spec (1):
* TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
* SSL connection using TLSv1.3 / TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
* ALPN, server accepted to use http/1.1
* Server certificate:
*  subject: C=AU; ST=Some-State; O=Internet Widgits Pty Ltd; CN=www.example.com
*  start date: Aug 29 13:12:29 2021 GMT
*  expire date: Aug 29 13:12:29 2022 GMT
*  issuer: C=AU; ST=Some-State; O=Internet Widgits Pty Ltd; CN=www.example.com
*  SSL certificate verify result: self signed certificate (18), continuing anyway.
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: localhost
> User-Agent: curl/7.68.0
> Accept: */*
> 
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Newsession Ticket (4):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Newsession Ticket (4):
* old SSL session ID is stale, removing
* Mark bundle as not supporting multiuse
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx/1.20.1
< Date: Sun, 29 Aug 2021 14:46:28 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 612
< Last-Modified: Tue, 25 May 2021 12:35:38 GMT
< Connection: keep-alive
< ETag: "60acef1a-264"
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
    body {
        width: 35em;
        margin: 0 auto;
        font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>
* Connection #0 to host localhost left intact